Providing balance to people
with peripheral neuropathy

Current Walkasins® Clinical Research

Clinical Trial

The walk2Wellness Long Term Clinical Trial will evaluate Walkasins use on about 100 patients from multiple sites across the country for up to one year, beginning in late 2018. For study site locations, enrollment status, and requirements, please visit the link above.

Recent Peer-Reviewed Research on Walkasins®


Koehler-McNicholas SR, Danzl L, Cataldo AY, Oddsson LIE (2019) Neuromodulation to improve gait and balance function using a sensory neuroprosthesis in people who report insensate feet – A randomized control cross-over study. PLOS ONE 14(4): e0216212.

walk2Wellness Interim Study Update

walk2Wellness Study Overview and Interim Update


Conference Presentations on Walkasins®

Oddsson, LI. New wearable sensory neuroprosthesis for safer mobility and lower fall-risk in the aged population. International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2020; Orlando, FL.

Oddsson, LI. On Certain Patients, a Wearable Plantar Sensory Neuroprosthesis Appears to Decrease Falls! American Physical Therapy Association Combined Sections Meeting 2020; Denver, CO.

Oddsson, LI Walk2Wellness Update: Sustained Effects of Sensory Neuromodulation on Gait Function in Persons with Peripheral Neuropathy. American Physical Therapy Association Combined Sections Meeting 2020; Denver, CO.

Oddsson, LIE. Slips and Falls and Record Snow in Minnesota – walk2Wellness Clinical Trial Update, American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Annual Assembly 2019, San Antonio, TX.

Oddsson, LIE. A Wearable Device for Sensory Motor Recovery, Function and Balance. Cross-cut presentation at the 96th Annual meeting of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine 2019, Chicago, IL.

Oddsson, LIE., Cohen H., Wrisley, DM. Sensory Neuromodulation to Improve Physical Function in Persons with Peripheral Neuropathy New Technology Symposium presented at the 96th Annual meeting of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine 2019, Chicago, IL.

Oddsson, LI. Clinical Trial Update – Improving Physical Function in Person with Peripheral Neuropathy Using Sensory Neuromodulation. Peripheral Nerve Society 2019; Genoa, Italy.

Oddsson, LI. Development of New Wearable Technology to Improve Gait and Balance Function using Sensory Non-Invasive Neuromodulation. Active Aging School Conference 2019; Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel – March 27-29, 2019.

Oddsson, LI. A History of Falls with Peripheral Neuropathy Appears to Increase the Likelihood of Improving Gait Function using Sensory Neuromodulation. Neuromodulation Conference 2019; Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Oddsson, LI. The Walkasins Journey – The walk2Wellness Trial and Entering the Market. Design of Medical Device Conference, April 17, 2019; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Wrisley D, McLean G, Oddsson L. The use of a wearable sensory prosthesis to improve gait and balance in a patient with peripheral neuropathy. In: Proceedings of the American Physical Therapy Association Combined Sections Meeting. 2018; New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. p. 3196.

Oddsson, LI. Incorporating reimbursement strategy into clinical study design to avoid extra trials. Outsourcing of Clinical Trials Conference 2018; Bloomington, Minnesota.

Oddsson, LI. Sensory Neuromodulation using Tactile Feedback of Foot Pressure to Enhance Gait Function. Neuromodulation Conference 2018; Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Oddsson, LI. Can Vibrotactile Feedback of Foot Pressure Enhance a Balance Therapy Session? American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine 2018; Dallas, Texas.

Oddsson, LI. A Wearable Sensory Prosthetic to Improve Balance and Gait Function – from Research to Medical Device. University of Minnesota Rehab Seminar 2018; Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Koehler-McNicholas SR, Danzl L, Oddsson L. The effect of a lower-limb sensory prosthesis on balance and gait in people with peripheral neuropathy. In: Proceedings of the Design of Medical Devices Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 2017; Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. p. V001T05A011.

Oddsson, LI. Walkasins – The Medical-Grade Wearable Sensory Prosthesis to Improve Balance and Mobility. MobCon Digital Health Conference, April 26, 2016; Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Related Peer-Reviewed Research

Cavanagh PR, Derr JA, Ulbrecht JS, Maser RE, Orchard TJ. Problems with gait and posture in neuropathic patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 1992; June: 9(5), 469-74. pmid:1611836

Halvarsson A, Oddsson L, Franzén E, Ståhle A. Long-term effects of a progressive and specific balance-training programme with multi-task exercises for older adults with osteoporosis: A randomized controlled study. Clin Rehabil. 2016; 30(11): 1049–1059. pmid: 26396164

Halvarsson A, Oddsson L, Olsson E, Farén E, Pettersson A, Ståhle A. Effects of new, individually adjusted, progressive balance group training for elderly people with fear of falling and tend to fall: A randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 2011; 25(11): 1021–1031. pmid: 21849377

Halvarsson A, Franzén E, Farén E, Olsson E, Oddsson L, Ståhle A. Long-term effects of new progressive group balance training for elderly people with increased risk of falling-A randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 2013; 27(5): 450–458. pmid: 23113989

Harris M, Eastman R, Cowie C. Symptoms of sensory neuropathy in adults with NIDDM in the U.S. population. Diabetes Care. 1993; 16(11): 1446–1452. pmid:8299433

Inglis JT, Horak FB, Shupert CL, Jones-Rycewicz C. The importance of somatosensory information in triggering and scaling automatic postural responses in humans. Exp Brain Res. 1994; 101(1): 159–164. pmid:7843295

Melzer I, Oddsson LIE. Improving balance control and self-reported lower extremity function in community-dwelling older adults: A randomized control trial. Clin Rehabil. 2013; 27(3): 195–206. pmid:22837541

Menz HB, Lor RF, St George R, Fitzpatrick RC. Walking stability and sensorimotor function in older people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Arch Phys Med Rehabilitation 2004; 85: 245-52. pmid:14966709

Meyer PF, Oddsson LI. Alternating-pulse iontophoresis for targeted cutaneous anesthesia. J Neurosci Methods. 2003 May 30;125(1-2):209-14. pmid:12763247

Meyer PF, Oddsson LI, De Luca CJ. Reduced plantar sensitivity alters postural responses to lateral perturbations of balance. Exp Brain Res. 2004 Aug;157(4):526-36. pmid:15029466

Meyer PF, Oddsson LI, De Luca CJ. The role of plantar cutaneous sensation in unperturbed stance. Exp Brain Res. 2004 Jun;156(4):505-12. pmid:14968274

Oddsson, LIE, Boissy, P, Melzer, I. How to improve gait and balance function in elderly individuals—compliance with principles of training. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, April 2007, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 15–23. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity

Richardson JK, Ching C, Hurvitz EA. The relationship between electromyographically documented peripheral neuropathy and falls. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992; 40(10): 1008–1012. pmid:1328346

Richardson JK, Hurvitz EA. Peripheral neuropathy: A true risk factor for falls. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1995; 50(4): M211–215. pmid:7614243

Richardson JK, Ashton-Miller JA. Peripheral neuropathy: An often-overlooked cause of falls in the elderly. Postgrad Med. 1996; 99(6): 161–172. pmid:868629

Sienko KH, Whitney SL, Carender WJ, Wall C. The role of sensory augmentation for people with vestibular deficits: Real-time balance aid and/or rehabilitation device? J Vestib Res. 2017; 27(1): 63–76. pmid:28387692

Statler K, Wrisley D, Karlsson R, Stephens M, Oddsson L, Wall C. Vibrotactile feedback of medial-lateral trunk tilt or foot pressure reduces risk of falling in healthy older adults. In: Proceedings of the International Society of Posture and Gait Research World Congress. 2007; Burlington, Vermont, USA. p.49. pmid: 23367331

Wall C, Wrisley D, Oddsson L. Vibrotactile feedback of mediolateral trunk tilt or foot pressure increases locomotor performance in healthy older adults-A pilot study. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 6145–6148. pmid:23367331

Yau RK, Strotmeyer ES, Resnick HE, et al. Diabetes and risk of hospitalized fall injury among older adults. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(12):3985–3991. doi:10.2337/dc13-0429 pmid: 24130352

Indication for Use

Walkasins is indicated for patients with lower limb sensory peripheral neuropathy who present with gait and balance impairments. Walkasins is indicated for patients who can feel the tactile stimuli from the Leg Unit on the lower leg.

Please see the Safety Information for a complete list of warnings, precautions, and contraindications.

Caution: Federal law restricts this device to sale by or on the order of a physician.